Colony Collapse Disorder – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Colony Collapse Disorder (or CCD) is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term Colony Collapse Disorder was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of Western honey bee colonies in North America in late 2006.[1]

European beekeepers observed similar phenomena in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain,[2] and initial reports have also come in from Switzerland and Germany, albeit to a lesser degree.[3] Possible cases of CCD have also been reported in Taiwan since April 2007.[4]

The cause or causes of the syndrome are not yet fully understood, although many authorities attribute the problem to biotic factors such as Varroa mites and insect diseases (i.e., pathogens[5] including Nosema apis and Israel acute paralysis virus[6][7]). Other proposed causes include environmental change-related stresses,[8]malnutrition and pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid), and migratory beekeeping. More highly speculative possibilities have included both cell phone radiation and genetically modified (GM) crops with pest control characteristics,[9][10] though experts point out no evidence exists for either assertion.

The easiest way to create a solarized image digitally is to use the ‘Curves’ control found on programs such as Photoshop. The line of the on-screen graph is simply pulled into a U-shaped curve.

In Germania, Olanda, Danimarca i medicinali generici costituiscono circa il 40% in volumi (in confezioni vendute) del mercato del farmaco. In Italia non si arriva al 5%.

“The fact is that the onrush of change has become so drastic that people are utterly confused as to what the situation actually is, what may eventuate from it, what they want instead and what needs to be done. And while the very essence of human society is being transformed, the economic and technical glamour of its achievements conceals from our sight that these unceasing waves of change attack the very roots of our individual and collective life. We thus fail to see the danger element inherent in uncontrolled growth. Phenomenal increases, rapidly approaching critical maxima, are happening in population, pollution, energy release, speed, automation and other areas revolutionized by technology.  In the changed dynamics of these interacting factors lie the reasons why mankind is confronted with such an unprecedented complex of explosive problems. But we do not yet seem ready to realize that the time has come to plan and act on a scale and in ways capable of matching the new thrust and threat of events. Considering the situation in these broad and essential terms, We must recognize that very little is being done to redress it and set human fortunes on a sound and reasonable course very bleak situations will undoubtedly meet us during the next decades, unless a supreme effort is made now to get out of the present global impasse.”

“The Chasm Ahead” by Aurelio Peccei; Macmillan, 1968